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贝奥武夫

What styles can you observe in the lines of Beowulf?
A brief introduction; Content;

Appreciation.

Beowulf is the longest poem that has come down to us from Old English, one of the languages ancestral to Modern English. It is seen as an encomium, a song of praise for a great king.
《贝奥武夫》(Beowulf),又译贝奥武甫,完成于西元八 世纪,约750年左右的英雄叙事长诗,长达3000行。故事的 舞台位于北欧的斯堪的纳维亚半岛。是以古英语记载的传说 中最古老的一篇,在语言学方面也是相当珍贵的文献。 贝奥 武夫(Beowulf)乃现存古英文文学中最伟大之作,也是欧 洲最早的方言史诗。该诗中并未提及英国,但学者相信该诗 约於西元七二五年左右在英国完成。全诗共三千一百八十二 行,以斯堪地那维亚的英雄贝奥武夫的英勇事迹构成主要内 容。虽然历史上并未证实确有贝奥武夫其人,但诗中所提及 的许多其他人物与事迹却得到印证。

第一部分描叙丹麦霍格国王(King Hrothgurs)宏伟的 宫殿,在前后十二年中,半人半魔的妖怪格兰戴 (Grendel)每晚出没捉食霍格的战士。此时恰巧瑞典南 部济兹(Geats)王子贝奥武夫率家臣来访,协助除害。 国王当晚设宴款待,谁料妖怪格兰戴又复出现,捉食一名 济兹战士,贝奥武夫与之格斗,贝氏扭断其臂,妖怪落荒 而逃,因受重伤致死。第二天晚上,格兰戴的母亲前来为 其子复仇,其后贝氏把她在一湖泊的洞穴中杀死。 第二部分描叙贝奥武夫返国,被拥为王,前后五十年, 举国大治。最后贝奥武夫以垂老之年,杀一喷火巨龙,但 其个人亦因而身受重创,终於身死。诗末叙其葬礼,并有 挽歌。

Hwæ t! We Gardena in geardagum þeodcyninga þrym gefrunon hu ða æ þelingas ellen fremedon.

In modern English:

Lo! We the Spear-Danes, in days of yore,

have heard of the glory of the people's kings
how the noble ones did deeds of valor.

So, what styles can you observe in the lines of Beowulf?

In terms of its language &rhyme:
Old English poetry such as Beowulf is very different from modern poetry. It was probably recited, for few people at that time were able to read. Instead of pairs of lines joined by rhyme (similarity of sounds at the ends of words), Anglo-Saxon poets typically used alliteration - a technique in which the first half of the line (the a-verse) is linked to the second half (the b-verse) through similarity in initial sound: Oft Scyld Scefing sceaðena threatum。 本诗原以西撒克逊方言写成,押头韵而不押尾韵,用双字隐喻而不用 明喻。整篇诗采用押头韵手法,节奏强劲多变,一般每行四个重音,往 往有三个押头韵,这是该诗最明显的特征。同时,诗中暗喻和含蓄手法 大量使用,也配合表现了英雄题材。 《贝奥武夫》(Beowulf)

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